UFO, definition and history. A-Z index of Cognitio.

UFO is the acronym of the English Unidentified Flying Object or Unknown Flying Object, which is an unidentified flying object that generically refers to any aviation phenomenon whose causes can not easily or immediately be detected by an observer.

Flying saucer, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

Flying saucer

On the phenomenon, since the postwar period, official studies have also been conducted by military and civilian authorities in various countries. The most important official studies were conducted by the United States of America with the Blue Book Project (managed by USAF), the United Kingdom with the Condign Project (managed by the Ministry of Defense), the Soviet Union with the Setka Program ( Managed by the Ministry of Defense and the Academy of Sciences) and by France through GEIPAN (section of the French space agency agency CNES).

Project Blue Book, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

Project Blue Book

These studies, which were first secretaried and only publicly released, found that statistically there is a negligible percentage of sightings that remain without an explanation. In fact, 22% of the total are unidentified cases resulting from French GEIPAN research; About 1100 (10% of the total) are those that emerge from the archives of the UK Defense Ministry and 701 (5.56% of the total) resulting from the Blue Book Project (study closed in 1969), while cases not explained Of the Setka Program are about 10%.The phenomenon of UFO sightings has become a popular subject in the United States in the second half of the forties.

Setka program, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

Setka program

The sightings were carried out by ordinary people and sometimes by civilian and military aviation personnel. A concentration of many UFO sightings at a certain time is referred to by flap ufologists, while a crash on a UFO on the ground is called UFO crash.

UFO crash, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

UFO crash

The number of UFO sightings varies depending on the seasons, time of day, and geographic areas. Jacques Vallée found that most sightings occur in the summer months, in the evening and in the morning hours just before dawn. In the second half of the twentieth century, some religious movements were born, mostly sectarian, which see Extraterrestrials as superior beings who intervene in the history of humanity in order to guide their evolution.

Extraterrestrial, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.


In addition, some authors, including Swiss writer Erich von Däniken, US Presbyterian pastor and US UFO Barry Downing, and Spanish Catholic priest Salvador Freixedo, hypothesized links between UFOs and traditional religions, claiming that some passages of the Bible and other books Religious can be explained by the intervention of extraterrestrial visitors.

Bible, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.


Most scientists and scholars of religions reject such hypotheses. To overcome the problems posed by the enormous distances to travel in a interstellar journey and the limitless limit of the speed of light postulated by the theory of relativity, some physicists favoring the extraterrestrial hypothesis have elaborated theories on UFOs hypothesizing that they can reach in various superluminal speeds or That they can travel through other dimensions;

Interstellar journey, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

Interstellar journey

The astrophysicist Bernard Haisch bases this latter hypothesis on super-string theory. Nuclear physicist Stanton Friedman has suggested a magneto-hydrodynamic propulsion for UFOs, while engineering professor James Harder has suggested that propulsion can be based on gravitomagnetism. Most scientists skeptically consider such UFO theories. According to the astronomer Carl Sagan, a scholar of exobiology and former consultant of the Blue Book Project, the UFO problem should be tackled with scientific skepticism, avoiding the extremes of those who accept the letter any report on the UFOs and those who refuse even to consider the ” Arguing that it is anti-scientific to occupy it.

Exobiology, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.


The scientist has seriously examined the available UFO documentation, noting first of all that the variety of UFO-related events suggests that they do not have a common origin and that phenomena with no relation to each other are grouped under this category.

Historical UFOs, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

Historical UFOs

The pioneer of deep psychology Carl Gustav Jung has dealt with several times the UFO phenomenon in his writings and in particular in the famous essay A modern myth: the things that are seen in the sky, interpreting them as unconscious psychic representations linked to events of collective relevance.

UFO, definition and history. A-Z index of Cognitio.



To open the video click on the image, good view from your Alessandro Brizzi.

UFO, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.