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The eighteenth century is the century of the Enlightenment, during which the critical use of reason begins to penetrate the prejudice and uncritical acceptance of authority, even political and religious. The search for such natural laws originated in the context of cosmological studies and mathematical formulation of the Newtonian gravitational theory, which was the most important methodological milestone reached by scientific cosmology of the eighteenth century. and he helped to instill confidence and to encourage the application of rational thinking to other areas of research. Between the seventeenth and eighteenth century. the explanation of why the planets move around the sun always along the same orbits becomes a central problem of cosmology. Around the middle of the seventeenth century, Descartes formulated one of the possible answers, making the Universe consist of huge vortex of cosmic matter. Laplace later resumed the Cartesian problem of the origin of the solar system. Following the atheistic approach to nature of some of the French Enlightenment scientists, he sought to replace the hypothesis of the creative role of God with a purely physical theory that could also explain the Universe order and, in particular, the structure of Solar system. Much of the astronomical and cosmological research of the eighteenth century was necessarily focused on the solar system, whose boundaries coincided substantially with those of the observable Universe. Speculation, however, did not know these limits. The eighteenth-century faith in the existence of an order of the Universe made the understanding of the nature of that order major theological challenge, philosophical and scientific. In the late eighteenth century. cosmology was now a science that was the laws of Nature and sequence of mechanical events that explain the evolution, from initial chaos to the structure currently observed. This structure was allegedly subjected to further processing. At the beginning of the century, on the contrary, the normal and stable structure of the Universe, as well as its initial creation, were considered still work of God; His cosmological role will diminish with the passage of centuries.

 

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