Sphinx, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

The Great Sphinx of Giza is a limestone sculpture located in the Necropolis of Giza, depicting a sphinx lying down, a mythological figure with a man’s head and a lion’s body. The monument was probably derived from a rock outcrop during the construction of the Giza pyramids. Strangely, the Great Sphinx is an isolated monument when, on the other hand, the sphinxes were paired to protect the entrance of a building. Although the type of stone used for the head of the Sphinx is of better body quality, the face is the most damaged part of the monument. One of the mysteries of the Sphinx, fueled by popular legends, is certainly the presence of hidden passages inside it. At present, one of them is known only: a short, out-of-the-way void in the 19th Century by John Shae Perring and Howard Vyse while searching for a secret chamber inside the body. The hypothesis that there are hidden chambers inside the monument has no scientific evidence even if the last excavations in 2007 have detected the presence of a dense network of tunnels. The Registry Room is a mythical library buried under the Sphinx of Giza, which according to some would contain all the knowledge of the ancient Egyptians on papyrus rolls, in addition to the history of the lost continent of Atlantis.Atlantis, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

The Great Sphinx is an integral part of the large funeral complex of Chephren and lies laterally at the processional ramp leading from the temple downstream to the Pyramid of Chephren in Giza. To the east of the Sphinx, there are two temples, one facing the hind legs, baptized as the Sphinx Temple, while the other, the Chephren Valley Temple, is located next to the first in the south. During the Arab conquest, a Baghdad physician, Abd el-Latif, wrote around 1200 AD. that near the Pyramids there was a colossal head, from the face painted in red, emerging from the sand, whose body was buried in the ground.

Pyramids, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.


At the beginning of the 1920s, the French Egyptian Jean-François Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphs with Rosetta’s stone and managed to translate the ancient Egyptian language.

Rosetta Stone, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

Rosetta Stone

Thus the stele found at the foot of the Sphinx could be interpreted. It was discovered that he talked of an ancient excavation to the monument taken by Pharaoh Thutmose IV of the New Kingdom.Thutmose IV, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

The stele is commonly called Dream stele, as it states that the cause of the restoration was a dream made by the pharaoh while he was resting in the shadow of the statue in which the Sphinx is intended to give him his kingdom on earth in return for his treatment.Dream stele, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

According to the common opinion of the Egyptians, the Sphinx belongs to the Old Kingdom, most probably to Pharaoh Chephren of the 4th Egyptian dynasty, who built it around 2500 BC. 

Old Kingdom, of Egypt, collapsed about climate change Original article of Alessandro Brizzi.

Old Kingdom

Thanks to the excavations carried out by Professor Selim Hassam, many tests have been found, placing his dating not later than the Fourth Dynasty; the most important are the tombs facing south and the southwest corner of the fence cuts the ditch to collect rainwater. There were numerous alternate hypotheses, who wanted to date the Sphinx in very distant times, even in the 12,000 BC. – 10,000 a.C. This dating is done by considering the signs of erosion on the body of the statue, similar to those typically left by a long exposure to the rain and starting from the assumption that the last rains in the Giza region came to the end of the last glaciation. Another alternative hypothesis, conducive to the Sphinx dating in 10500 BC, is that formed on the basis of astronomical studies on the alignment of the pyramids. 

Alignment, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.


It is certain that the Sphinx faces east, while the pyramids of Giza are arranged exactly according to the cardinal points. Some scholars concentrated their research on this particular disposition, and in the nineteenth century reconstructed the astronomical alignments that could have occurred in the past. With the help of computers from the 1960s on, the calculations were more accurate. According to the astronomical hypothesis, the Sphinx would be connected to the other pyramids, and therefore constructed in the same period, also anticipated at 10500 BC.

Sphinx, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.



To open the video  click on the image, good view from your Alessandro Brizzi.Sphinx, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.