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A Narmer is attributed, by tradition, the unification of Lower Egypt by Upper Egypt, on a date around 3000 BC This tradition dates back to the New Kingdom, and there is no documentary evidence that can further confirm it or deny it. The existence of this sovereign is certified by a makeup palette, discovery Nekhen in 1898, on which the serekh with glyphs appear, and many other artifacts. The same palette also seems to confirm that the sovereign in question reigned over all Egypt, as these are represented in the head with one hand the crown of Lower Egypt, and on the other that of Upper Egypt. It is possible, but not probable, that the semi-mythical Scorpion King should identify with the same Narmer. Herodotus is that Diodorus agree in attributing to this king the founding of the city that later will be known as Menfi, and that at the time of its foundation was called White Wall. It is likely that the new city, located in the junction of Upper and Lower Egypt, was built to be the capital of the new unified kingdom. In this case, the “tinite” appellation given to the first two dynasties would indicate not the capital, but the place of origin of the rulers. Chief queen of Narmer may have been a princess, identified as Neithhotep, whose name appears in the tombs of the successors of the sovereign. Even this identification remains uncertain, as Neithhotep might well have been the chief queen of the successor of Narmer. Some recent discoveries, the real lists found in the tombs of Den and Qa’a, have questioned the identification of Menes with Narmer. In these lists the Menes name does not appear, as it is confirmed Narmer as the founder of the dynasty. In 1994 serekh of this sovereign was recognized on the remains of a container for wine unearthed in an archaeological dig in southern Israel. The Narmer’s tomb was found in the necropolis of Umm el-Qa’ab at Abydos, and consists of two underground rooms connected to each other.

 

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