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At the origin of supermassive black holes.
A computer simulation confirms some theories on the formation of Black Holes with masses of millions and billions of times that of the Sun in the young universe. In this genesis is essential the contribution of the radiation emitted from another galaxy.
How long does it take to form a supermassive black hole? According to the current cosmological models, a few billion years. Yet by the observations are more than twenty of these giants of the cosmos, with a mass of millions or billions of times that of the Sun, already 800 million years after the Big Bang.
A new study published in “Nature Astronomy” by an international research collaboration, provides new support for the theory that explains how they can be formed and how they can be grown in such a short time. Through computer simulations, the authors show that a black hole can grow quickly if it forms the center of a galaxy whose ability to form new stars is inhibited by the intense radiation emitted from another nearby galaxy. In other words, the first galaxy grows only up to a certain point and then collapses to form a black hole that eats gas, dust and dying stars. The collapse of a galaxy and the formation of a black hole of a million solar masses is a process that employs 100,000 years, which is a blink of an eye compared with cosmic time. A few hundred million years later it can become a supermassive black hole with a mass billions of times that of the Sun: So the process is much faster than expected. But how the interaction with another galaxy can start the growth of a black hole? You can tell Whereas, in the early universe, stars and galaxies were formed from molecular hydrogen cooling. Now, if the transformation of hydrogen into stars came far enough away from the blacks holes, they would not have enough material with which to feed to reach the maximum size. In some cases it was possible to overcome this limitation.
In 2008, the same Haiman has speculated that the radiation produced from a nearby massive galaxy could split the molecular hydrogen into atomic hydrogen and cause the collapse of the nascent galaxy. A subsequent study has calculated that to emit enough radiation to inhibit star formation, the nearby galaxy should have been at least 100 million times more massive than the sun. And in the early universe, there was a sufficient number of these galaxies to explain the holes blacks supermassive so far observed. In the new study published in “Nature Astronomy”, it developed a model of this process computers: Researchers have discovered that the galaxy known to inhibit star formation could be smaller and closer than previously estimated. The researchers hope to test their theory will be available when the James Webb Space Telescope, the successor to the famed Hubble Space Telescope, which should be launched by the end of 2018.
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