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Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies. 1492: We are on a winding caravel in the Atlantic; In the commander’s cabin a man with austere and decisive styles studied the cards in his possession again. This man is Christopher Columbus and in a few days, he will go to history as the discoverer of the American continent. He knows his men are beginning to be exasperated for this continual navigation in an ocean that seems endless, but from the cards in his possession, partly inherited by the father-in-law, it seems that the end of that journey is over.Christopher Columbus

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

He is far too confident that those cards, so anachronistic for the time, indicating places and lands never seen before (or at least supposedly), are not to lie and to bravely re-read the letter of his friend Toscanelli, cartographer of Time, who had submitted the same project to the King of Portugal before Colombo, who advised him, on his journey, to stop in the big islands he called Antilia, demonstrating that he believed in it firmly.islands he called Antilia

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

1513: a famous Turkish admiral, Pirì Reis, is chin on his table in his house in Constantinople, intending to recapture, on a gazelle skin, some old maps of which many lines are unknown to him, albeit as admiral Of the Turkish fleet, had had a good opportunity to sail in the then known seas. Curiosity, and perhaps the ability to conceive before others that those shaded lands and lands are not simply fruit of fantasy, but rather the legacy of ancient knowledge, so that he pursues an end that, at the sight of many, then seemed to As a visionary, but to our eyes today becomes one of the greatest questions, even though it is often ignored by dogmatic science.Pirì Reis

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

1737: Nearly two centuries after Pirì Reïs, we find, this time in France, an eminent French geographer, Philip Buache, aiming to recapture some ancient maps that trace the profile of a continent until then (and until 1818) still unknown: l ‘Antarctica. What you can not know about Buache is that the continent of which the profile is tracing exists but that these territorial features were its borders about 13,000 years earlier, when that land was free from the ice that now covers it.

1959: An old professor of science history, Charles Hapgood, is studying, in front of the studio fireplace, in his home in New Hampshire some ancient maps; In his hands are Pirì Reïs, Buache, Mercator, Oronzo Fineo and others. The same discrepancy is present in all of these documents: they are the forerunner of geographic and cartographic knowledge that is openly in contradiction with the periods to which they refer: the notions they represent are far ahead of normal geographic and cartographic trends, just as we know!

I wanted to work a little fancy to represent those that could be some important steps in the knowledge of some of the most extraordinary “out of place” finds that often come up suddenly, almost as if to upset the natural order of things and history As we know it. But I want to point out that the characters I have mentioned and the dates are true (I have worked fantasy on the setting) as I am absolutely truthful, even if ignored by science, the maps and the documents I have mentioned, and that will be the subject of this Treated, that is, the maps “impossible”. Why are not they possible? The motivation of this terminology I think I have already clarified in the previous lines, so I think it is much easier to address this topic by going into the details of some of these cards. It seems now established that the Americas have been reached before Colombo by the Vikings, whose traces would result in a settlement on the island of Newfoundland, and Heydal, an adventurous explorer of our time, has shown that the ancient ships could have been very well Embark on an ocean voyage. It also seems that Phoenicians and Carthaginians (and even the Greeks) would probably know these routes and engage in commercial relations with peoples of such lands (could be explained by the cocaine traces, originating in South America, on Egyptian mummies and That in defending this knowledge they proceeded to the sinking of all the foreign ships that drove through the then boundary of the known world, the famous Columns of Hercules (the Strait of Gibraltar), or even, as they realized they were being followed, In addition, numerous legends of impassable seas and horrible monsters discouraged the other ardent ones.Vikings

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

Admiral Carthaginian Imilcone speaks of an “impenetrable sea, full of algae and immature … where the wind does not blow and the ships become putrid (perhaps an allusion to the Sea of Sargassi, known for its algae covering its surface And where does it take its name and its endless bonbon?) … while sea monsters are swimming around our ships … “. This could explain why the American continent and some groups of islands (the Antilles, identifiable with Cuba, Haiti, Bermuda etc) were publicly dominated by some of the portholes that preceded Colombo’s discovery. However, there are other elements that seem to prove the possibility that these routes were known and beaten by a race of much older navigators to us completely unknown. One of the points at stake is the ability by compilers of such maps to represent a continent, Antarctica, unknown until 1818, and in a state of thawing, lasting no less than 4000 BC, The beginning of the story we know. The representative capacity of such lands and their precise positioning, due to the actual knowledge of the concepts of latitude and longitude, which implies a scientific and instrumental knowledge which we have come to in the last three centuries, implies another question: if Antarctica was discovered and mapped between 13,000 and 4000 BC, as the people were capable of doing so, when the most evolved peoples known to us (Egyptians, Sumerians, Babylonians, Greeks and Romans) were then in a stage that To define primitive is very reductive?

The Piris Reis card.The Piris Reis card.

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

On November 2, 1929, a catalog of objects belonging to Topkapi Museum in Istanbul was found, a two-part geographic map that left astonished scholars. That card is now known as the “Pirì Reis card”, by the name of its author, Pirì Reis Ibn Haja Mehemet.Topkapi Museum in Istanbul

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

Pirì was a man of incredible culture (he knew Greek, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese) and an esteemed cartographer. He designed the map in question in 1513, collecting numerous antique cards, including a possession by a Colombo sailor, captured by Kemal Rais, Uncle Pirì.

But what’s so special about this map? Pirì’s paper has attracted the attention of many researchers, since it is perhaps the most strange and unbelievable so-called “mysterious maps”, that is, geographic maps that depict unexplored territories at the time they were drawn. Pirì’s chart depicts most of the Iberian peninsula, a small portion of France, a vast part of Northwestern Africa, the coasts of Central America and a stretch of the Antarctic coastline. Well, in 1513, many of these regions were completely unknown, as shown by an examination of coherent cartography. Of Antarctica, the newspaper Pirì represents the Palmer peninsula, the land of Queen Maud and various sublime peaks from the coast, recognized as such only in 1949 by a shipment organized by Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The same Antarctic continent was discovered only during the nineteenth century (1820). The paper also describes, with relative precision, other Antarctic regions that could not be known in the ‘500s since they were covered with ice and that it was possible to map it in 1958 in the research program organized by the International Geophysical Year. Among the various thumbnails that accompany the map, you can distinguish, alongside the Andes Cordillery, a blade and a puma. These animals and the same Cordillera were, at the time of Pirì, completely unknown, since exploration of the Andean system began only after 1531 when Pizarro moved to conquest of the Inca empire.Pizarro moved to conquest of the Inca empire.

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

All this would be explained only by admitting that America and the coasts of Antarctica had already been explored in remote times and that ancient cartographers had made detailed maps. But this is only to inflate the mystery: the last time Antarctica would have been able to detect it and map it without ice, it would go back to about 15,000 years ago: What civilization could exist at that time, Cro-magnon man?Cro-magnon man

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

In a memoir named Bahriye, Pirì claims Colombo knew the existence of America before he was there because he had ancient maps that showed him, and that he had used these same maps to convince Queen of Spain to finance His business. Pirì adds that Colombo came by wearing glass beads as he knew that the Indians were attracted to this kind of ninnles.wearing glass beads

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

Always according to Pirì, not only did Colombo have reached America, but also the Vikings, St. Brindan, Nicolas Giuvan, Antonio the Genovese, and others. The paper was studied in the twentieth century by Charles Hapgood, who, in order to confirm his impressions, underwent the study of USAF’s military aeronautical unit USAF. Their response was astonishing as they themselves asserted, in a note sent to Hapgood, that it was inexplicable the existence of that map, as it contained elements not known at the time of Piris Reis or of any other civilization known to us, Of the previous era.USAF

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

This forced Hapgood to reject the idea that the map was derived from the Sunni Vikings, since, although they had ever come before Colombo, the Americas, they could not find the Antarctic continent in any other expedition as it was It was drawn, that is, without icicles. It is not even possible that Colombo’s sailor, captured by Pirie Reis’s uncle, was able to inform Pirì himself in such a detailed manner since on the return of his fourth expedition (1504) Colombo had only explored the coasts of Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Hapgood concludes that there must have been an ancient civilization of the king of the seas, with maritime, geographic and astronomical knowledge, extremely developed and then lost.

Oronzo Fineo cardOronzo Fineo card

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

Charles Hapgood in his quest for ancient portolans, in addition to Pirì Reìs’ paper, came across a depiction of 1531, by Oronzio Fineo called, “Oronzio Fineo Maple Worm”. This map is the result of copying of many “source” cards and represents the coastal part of the ice-free Antarctic continent. In it, the Antarctic continent is faithfully reproduced and positioned, geographically, perfectly. Mountain chains and rivers are annotated on it, as we have actually discovered that they existed, now covered by the iceberg. The interior, on the other hand, is devoid of river and mountain depictions, indicating that this part, unlike the coastal one, was already covered with ice. Fine world map seems to be another convincing proof of the possibility of a remote colonization of the southern continent and the portrayal of an era corresponding to the end of the last glacial period. The map also shows numerous estuaries, creeks, and rivers, in support of the modern theories that hypothesize ancient rivers in Antarctica where glaciers are present today such as Beardmore and Scott. The various carotages carried out in recent times are in support of the thesis that Antarctica was a habitable place: samples are rich in sediments that reveal different climate conditions, but above all, there is a noticeable presence of fine grain such as that transported From the rivers. In addition, the carotage reveals that only around 4000 BC Antarctica was completely covered with ice.Antarctica was completely covered with ice.

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

The maps of Mercator and BuacheThe maps of Mercator and Buache

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

Who were Gerardo Mercatore and Philiphe Buache? Mercatore, still known today for the map projection bearing its name, was a distinguished scholar of his time so that his desire to know brought him in 1560 to venture into Egypt to visit the Great Pyramid and to accumulate ancient texts For his personal library. In its “Atlas” it represented the southern continent (this in 1569, and we remember that the Antarctic continent was only discovered in 1818): some parts of this continent are Cap Dart, Amundsen Sea, Thurston Island, Fletcher Islands, Alexander I Island, Palmer’s Antarctic Peninsula, Weddel Sea, Regula Chain, Mühlig-Hoffman Chain, Prince Harald Coast, and Prince Olaf Coast. Buache was a French geographer of the eighteenth century. Its paper has a unique peculiarity: it represents, perfectly, the Antarctic continent completely free from ice. We recall that the subglacial topography of this earth was only possible in 1958. The navigable canal that seems to divide the continent would actually exist if it were not covered by eternal ice, so we should infer that the original papers, which he had to refer to Buache for compilation Of its map were millennia before the sources to which Mercator, Fineo, Pirì Reyes had drawn.French geographer, Philip Buache

Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.

What to add more to what has already been said? The vicissitudes that have passed ancient documents over the centuries (just remember that a sheik used the texts of the Alexandria library, perhaps the most important and supplied, in antiquity, to provide public city baths fuel, arguing that if Those texts contained teachings opposed to those of the Koran, were to be condemned by impunity, while if such texts were confused with the Qur’an, useless as the Koran was enough. Or we remember the destruction of Mayan texts, perpetrated, in the name of the Catholic faith, by Bishop Landa in Mexico.)

Are enough to explain the lack of documents dating back to an ancient civilization, the forerunner of all the others. Invariably there are texts that cite those documents. Here, these strange maps, derived from much older original documents, could be the only tangible evidence of a past, of a story, of a glory that they have, and to which dogmatic, uncompromising science denies the opportunity To reveal himself completely, concealing behind an imperious no-comment or even impassively ignoring these fragments of ancient history that sometimes recur, almost as if to challenge the same science, mockingly, putting new questions and awaiting new answers.

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Mysterious ancient cartography finds and archaeological studies.