Mecca, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

Mecca, is a city of Western Saudi Arabia. The capital of the homonym province is foremost the holy city (before even Medina and Jerusalem) for the Muslims.

Jerusalem, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.


It is the city where Mohammed was born for Muslim tradition, remembered as a Prophet and a founder of Islam. It contains the largest mosque in the world, Masjid al-Haram. It is not known much before Islam. According to some Claudio Ptolemy it would remember it in the second century with the name of Macoraba, though it is not certain to refer to the present Mecca. The Koran mentions it in Sura XLVIII: 24. Islamic tradition describes it as a center of important trade (mawṣim) and spiritual gathering. The spiritual importance was directly linked to this sacred building. Initially it kept the symbol of the tribal urban divinity of Hubal, but in the Ka’ba there were many other idols, revered by most of the Arabian peninsular populations, which were destroyed in 630 by the Prophet Mohammed immediately to help stop the caravans and pilgrims after winning his hometown.

Divinity, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.


The Koran tells it with the name it would have brought in the pre-Islamic era of Bakka, Mohammed was about forty years old when, meditating in a cave near Mount Ḥirā’, would have had the first supernatural experience with the appearance of the angel Gabriel he would have given – using the imperative “iqrā'”, or “read!” – to proclaim the new divine message.

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Mecca is an annual destination for visits by Muslim pilgrims. According to the Qur’an, all those who can afford it physically and economically are required to visit it at least once in the life of the canonical pilgrimage called ḥajj. Its sacredness implies that in it (and in the surrounding territory, as is the case in Medina), it is categorically denied entry to a non-Muslim. 

Black Stone

Black Stone is a black rock, almost like a soccer ball, set at about 1.10 m high in the east corner of Ka’ba, Mecca. Islamic tradition claims that it was originally white in color and became black because of the sins against Allah of mankind. While scholars believe it is more simply a meteorite, though more in-depth studies are not permitted by religious authority. The wreck of an ancient worship, which some scholars thought was a memory of a prehistoric pre-Islamic past, Black Stone is considered by Muslims as the last record of the “Ancient House”, dropped from Allah directly from Heaven on Earth, completely destroyed from the Universal Flood.

Great Flood, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

Great Flood

For Islam, Black Stone was saved by Noah – a prophet known to Arab Islam by the name of Nūḥ – inside a cave near Mecca and from there the object would be retrieved by Abraham (prophet also called Ibrāhīm) when he, with the help of his son Ishmael (Ishmael), began the work of the new Ka’ba. Some scholars hypothesize that Black Stone is a meteorite.

Other scholars speak of a possible litolytic past. A safe answer does not exist, as it is impossible to conduct a review with modern scientific research tools. If it were an airtight, however, this would justify the conviction of Muslims who point it to him just as “descended from Heaven.”

Mecca, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.



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Mecca, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.