Jesus Christ, archaeologically and historically speaking. Original article by Alessandro Brizzi.
Jesus Christ of Nazareth, archaeologically and historically speaking. The historicity of Jesus, or the existence of Jesus of Nazareth as a real historical figure, is the historiographical thesis shared by many scholars as opposed to the thesis of the myth of Jesus, who denies his historical existence, today carried out only on one side academia.
Here you want to prove its veracity or not, thanks to archaeological and historical elements.
New Testament apocrypha
The historical investigation of Jesus has recently taken an interdisciplinary character and has experienced an interfaith enlargement of the research, with significant contributions even by secular scholars. Modern studies, which now also take into account a variety of Christian texts apocryphal, are also often characterized by a re-evaluation of traditional materials and then by a renewed confidence in the ability to trace accounts of the life of Jesus with stretches plausible from the historical point of view.
The Commodilla catacombs are the catacombs of Rome, placed in via the Seven Churches, not far from the Via Ostiense, in the Ostiense district. The underground cemetery is spread over three levels. The oldest and most interesting level from an archaeological point of view is that the median, housed in an old quarry pozzolan, reused funerary purposes: it is at this level that we find the graves of the martyrs, in a small underground basilica, and is from this level that developed the rest of the catacombs. In above ground, there are no monuments or remains of them, in some way connected with the catacombs.
Titus Flavius Josephus
Born in Jerusalem in Roman Judea, between about 37 and 38, in the first year of the reign of Caligula, from a family of Jewish priestly aristocracy, a relative of the Hasmonean dynasty, Joseph received traditional Jewish education with a strong influence of Greek and Latin culture.
In Jewish Antiquities Flavio Giuseppe tells the story of the Jewish people from its origins until the time immediately before the Jewish War of 66-70.
This work contains valuable information about the religious movements of Judaism of the first century, such as the Essenes, the Pharisees and Zealots. In Book XX (from 197 onwards) it contains the story of the dynasty of Ananias and martyrdom of James, brother of Jesus “called the Christ” (Book XX, 200). It also contains the so-called Josephus on Jesus, which is a short passage that mentions the preaching and death of Jesus, substantially confirming the account of the Gospels. Although this step is considered by some historians, including E. Schürer and H. Chadwick, in whole or in part, a forgery inserted in the Christian era, it was preserved in the original Greek by the Christian Church; while a study of 1971 by Shlomo Pines of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem on a code of Arab tenth century seems to confirm that this is a reference to Jesus Christ in the Gospels.
Jewish Antiquities (Latin: Antiquitates iudaicae) is a work of the Romanized Jewish historian Flavio Giuseppe, written in Greek Hellenistic in A.D. 93-94 about.
The term Giuseppe Flavio on Jesus indicates a song in Antiquities of the Jews written by the historian Jew Flavio Giuseppe, and particularly relevant to the debate about the historicity of Jesus. Together with another more concise step of Antiquities, in fact, is one of the first historical source documents non-Christian to speak of Jesus, the work was published in 93. However, for its celebratory tone, the authenticity of the Testimonium is the subject of debate since the sixteenth century. Most scholars today consider the Testimonium authentic, but the object of interpolations by medieval copyists before the XI century. Some scholars believe, finally, or entirely spurious and entirely genuine.
The Gospels (sometimes referred to as a whole with the Gospel) are books that tell the life and preaching of Jesus of Nazareth, the basis on which Christianity. “Gospel” comes from the Greek word ευ-αγγέλιον (eu anghélion), who arrives in English through the Latin evangelium and literally, means “good news”, “good news”. Over several centuries were composed many texts designated as “gospels”, though of a different literary genre. Some of them, released in the early centuries of the life of the Christian community, have been lost, becoming only known for the quote of their existence in later works to their composition; of these, we have been rediscovered thanks to archaeological finds from the nineteenth century. Among the survivor’s gospels to this day, the four oldest, narrating the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) are considered canonical by the Christian religion, others are called apocrypha.
Gospel, according to Matthew
The Gospel according to Matthew (in Greek: Κατὰ Μαθθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον) is one of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells of the life and ministry of Jesus, describes the genealogy, the virgin birth and childhood, baptism and temptation, the ministry of healing and preaching in Galilee, the journey to Jerusalem, marked by the expulsion of the vendors from the Temple and finally, the crucifixion, death, and resurrection.
Gospel according to Mark
The Gospel of Mark (in Greek: Κατὰ Μᾶρκον) is the second of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. The majority of modern scholars, however, agree that it was the first to be written, and then be used as a source for the two other Synoptic Gospels (the Gospel according to Matthew and Luke), in agreement with the theory of Marciana priority. It is a text which received version is in Greek language and of an anonymous author, that the ancient Christian tradition attributes to Marco Evangelista, also known as Giovanni Marco, cousin of Barnabas. This allocation is also reflected in other clues that seem to confirm that the author was a disciple of the Pietro apostle.
Gospel according to Luke
The Gospel according to Luke (in Greek: Κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον) is one of the canonical Gospels of the New Testament and is divided into 24 chapters. It narrates the life of Jesus and opens with the miraculous births of Giovanni Battista and Jesus, and then describe the latter ministry in Galilee, made of preaching, exorcisms, and miracles; after revealing to the disciples his divine nature with the transfiguration, Jesus went to Jerusalem, where he is crucified and then resurrected, appearing to his disciples and then ascended to heaven.
Gospel according to John
The Gospel of John is one of the four canonical gospels contained in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It comes as the result of the “testimony disciple whom Jesus loved”, traditionally identified with the apostle John, son of Zebedee. Today scholars are however often also refer to a Johannine school where he would experience the preparation of the gospel and letters attributed to the apostle.
Paul of Tarso or St. Paul
Paul of Tarso, who was born with the name of Saul, known as St. Paul for the cult figure, was a writer and Christian theologian. It ‘was the Apostle of the Gentiles, “which is the main mission of the Gospel of Jesus among the pagan Greeks and Romans. According to the biblical texts, Paul was a Hellenized Jew, who enjoyed Roman citizenship. Here he met Jesus directly, if his contemporaries, and, like many compatriots, not as the Christian Church of the new constitution, coming to haunt her directly. According to the Bible, Paul converted to Christianity on his way from Jerusalem to Damascus to organize the repression of Christians in the city, it was suddenly enveloped in a bright light and heard the voice of the Lord saying: “Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? “Blind Powered by the divine light, Paolo wander for three days in Damascus, where he was later recovered from the head of the small Christian community in that city, Ananias. The incident, known as ‘the conversion of Paul,’ gave the beginning of Paul’s evangelistic work.
Jesus according to the testimonies
The main source of information about the life of Jesus is made up of texts written by early Christians. It is a much more limited number of non-contemporary Christian texts that speak to Jesus explicitly. The writings of the New Testament were written, also based on previous oral sources, in a period between 50 A.D. and the end of the first century / early second.
The Babylonian Talmud
The Babylonian Talmud, Hebrew text that collects very ancient traditions and written down in the fifth-sixth century, contains a reference to Jesus, in whom it is said that he was executed on the eve of Easter because “practiced witchcraft.” This would seem to confirm that Jesus has done wonders, that his opponents attributed to the work of the devil.
However, there are very few historical documents related to the era of the Second Temple: apart from the works of Giuseppe Flavio, the oldest text of the period, is to remember the Mishnah, which is still more a code of laws rather than a register of legal proceedings a text of general history.
Nazareth: The Mary’s House
In 1620, thanks to the protection of Lebanon Emir Fakhr ed-Din, the Franciscans took possession of a cave already venerated by the Christians of Nazareth. They erected soon, to the south of the Basilica of the Annunciation, a church of modest size next to that cave. Father Prosper Viaud was the guardian of the convent in 1909 and it was his interest in archaeology and history to push in search of the Crusader basilica whose existence had read and it was built-in that place at the hands of Tancredi, Prince of Galilee. His search was successful when he noticed that the north wall of the main courtyard of the monastery was, in fact, a retaining wall of the ancient wall of the Crusader basilica. The work of the Franciscan church demolition and further research was commissioned in 1955 Bellarmino Bagatti archaeologist who dug under the Byzantine mosaics, removed, and subject them to restoration, he discovered graffiti on the walls of the first pilgrims including famous XE MAPIA2 that give the Christian identity of the place.
Capernaum: The house of Peter
In 1905 were found at Capernaum the remains of a beautiful white stone synagogue and later, the excavations of the synagogue and the Sea of Galilee unearthed several stone houses, belonging to the fishing town which flourished from the first century BC the sixth century A.D. The excavations made it possible to establish that in the fifth century A.D. It stood in that area an octagonal church that was particularly important to the early Christians. Under it was, in fact, found a home that early Christians identified with Peter’s house, where Jesus healed his mother-in-law, and in which he lived.
The Synagogue Capernaum
There, too, there is the synagogue where the Lord healed the man possessed by the devil. It climbs up many steps. This synagogue was built of hewn stone “was still the testimony of Egeria to encourage the two archaeologists with parallel trenches left the by-found home of Peter pushing towards the quarry of Tell el-Hum, now definitely identified with the ancient village of Capernaum.
Basilica of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem
Among the Christian sanctuaries around the world, it will be difficult to find one who, like the Basilica of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, has suffered many destruction and reconstructions. There is no way of knowing if the place of the tomb is the right one. Perhaps the men of Constantine discovered signs or writings left by the Christian visitors before Adriano veneer on the ground of the cemetery, or perhaps they found many graves, to choose the one that lent itself best to become a shrine. Whatever they found, it has made it a center that 1650 years later continues to attract pilgrims: people who believe that the tomb was empty, the first Christian Easter morning.
The Holy Shroud
The Shroud contains the images of a crucifix that are not painted on its fabric due to the lack of contours, of any trace of visible pigment to the naked eye, the stretch directionality as the common designs and are not even produced by a singing means of a statue or a bas-relief heated because they do not have the physical characteristics determined by the damage to the burning-actions. Even newer, suggestive and promising experiences with laser light, however, still in the initial phase of the research, were able to act only on small samples of fabric. Exhibit genuine or fake it, anyway it is, therefore, an original irreproducible by any means or system put at the disposal by modern science. For all these reasons all the current scientific assessments are oriented to the categorical confirmation of the authenticity of the material as well as indeed converge to prove the results of over a century of specialized research. Among these, he is included numerous archaeological confirmation of the eligibility of a burial cloth of the crucified Jewish era come down to us.
Jesus Christ, archaeologically and historically speaking. Original article by Alessandro Brizzi.
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