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Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe. Mesopotamia, crossed by two mighty rivers such as the Tigris and Euphrates, was seen by scholars from around the world as the cradle of the first great civilization that recognizes the official story: the civilization of Sumer, which flourished around 4,000 BC , The latest archaeological data coming mainly from Anatolia, a region of Turkey, also oblige the skeptics to consider seriously the possibility that in a remote and forgotten past, around 12,000 BC, in these territories lived and prospered a great enigmatic civilizations whose material traces only now beginning to emerge from the fog of time.

Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.

It was simple curiosity that in 1994 the German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt moved to the first inspection of that singular “hill with the belly” and, of course, would never have imagined to come across the oldest stone temple ever built by mankind: Göbekli Tepe, a majestic work destined to shatter the foundations of history. 

Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.

Located in Turkey, not far from the modern border with Syria, a short drive from the town of Urfa it leads to a hill overlooking the Harran plateau on top of which stands the megalithic complex of Göbekli Tepe, object of continuous investigations since 1995 archaeological that, according to some recent geological surveys, have brought to light only a small part. The site, divided into three different employment stages and chronological, extends for about 22 acres and the oldest phase is characterized by four distinct stone circles labeled by archaeologists as fences A, B, C and D. These have a diameter between 10-30 meters and are constituted by walls in dry stones interspersed with immense limestone columns T-shaped finely worked and decorated, the size ranging from 2 to 5.5 meters and with a weight varying between 10-15 tons. At the center of each fence rise two pillars arranged parallel to one another. Overall, the processing of the pillars is extraordinary, with cut edges and smooth surfaces that would realize any modern bricklayer According to Professor Schmidt some pillars were directly driven or leaning to the local rock, while others were fixed to a concrete base. A megalite unextracted and left unfinished presents estimated size of 7 × 3 meters and this is undoubtedly the most impressive architectural element of the ancient Neolithic entire region.

Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.

The many pillars identified in the present site of the bas-relief decorations depicting a vast array of animals, or in the words of Schmidt a “zoo stone age”, such as foxes, wild boars, snakes, wild cattle, mules and Asian wild sheep , birds (cranes and vultures), a gazelle and arthropods (ants and / or spiders). However it is not only the carvings but also sculptures in the round, including a carnivore, possibly a lion or another feline, which runs through the column, apparently hunting for a wild boar carved into the underlying relief. 

Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.

In addition, some bearing pillars of the symbols, in particular the two central pillars of the fence D have arms, hands and some clothing such as belts and a kind of thong. Also on one of the belts are in similar incisions in letters: one looks like an H and the other to a U turned sideways. Residents of Göbekli Tepe may have developed an ancient form of writing now lost? Much has been discussed, and will for a long time, about the symbolic themes expressed by the T-shape and decorations of Göbekli Tepe pillars.

Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.

However the look definitely more intriguing and mysterious site about the history and in that sense, a superficial examination, the style of the pillars and the quality of work would lead one to place the construction of the complex within a period between 3000-1000 BC How wrong can you be! Based on radiocarbon analysis conducted on the organic remains of plants and animals identified in the land used to cover each time the different construction phases of the site, the oldest phase (layer III) and monuments dating from the period 10000-9000 BC, the intermediate phase (layer II) is placed around all’8.500 BC and the most recent phase (layer I) is framed around 4,000 B.C. The dating of the earliest phase to 10000-9000 BC He left completely baffled archaeologists because for the first time he was facing a completely different reality from the academic standards according to which at that time the human race was organized in small nomadic bands quite unable to design and build impressive complex megalithic! It was also quite evident that to achieve a similar complex was necessary the aid of architects able to design and coordinate the work as well as a numerous workforce capable of performing all functional phases of construction to an efficient operation of the yard. However, as we shall see, the surprises were not finished because if on the one hand already the recovery of numerous finely decorated pillars was an indication of a social culture and very elaborate material, other archaeological excavations have also identified numerous artifacts whose implementation required a ‘extreme precision and sophistication. In this sense, besides the use of perishable materials such as wood and fiber to make clothes, instruments and tools, archaeologists have recovered numerous objects from different sizes and functionality: stone beads with incredibly small holes, small circular objects similar to buttons, a monumental stone slab intact with rectangular opening and stone rings large, so far identified so far only in the Göbekli site Tepe and whose function is still unknown. In particular a fragment of obsidian bracelet, the object has a complex shape with a diameter of 10 centimeters and a length of 3.3 cm, has been identified in the Neolithic site of Ankli Höyük, in central Anatolia, and was immediately analyzed using the modern high-tech methods of analysis. 

Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.

The results emerging from the analysis left stunned researchers because “modern laboratory instruments have revealed that the bracelet was made using highly specialized production techniques. The analyzes carried out have shown that the artifact was almost perfectly regular in the forms: the symmetry of the annular ridge is completely accurate, the most likely close to a hundred micrometers. This suggests that the craftsmen of the time used models to control its shape when it was made. The surface finish of the bracelet (which is very smooth, mirror-like) required the use of complex polishing techniques, are able to obtain a nanometer scale of the surface quality worthy of the lenses of today’s telescopes. ” So scientists do not speak of centimeters but also of micrometers and nanometers, units extremely difficult to even get by using the latest technology! Now it is quite evident that the resident population in this area possess all the most advanced technological knowledge necessary not only to the construction of the monumental megalithic temple, but also in the production of stone artifacts that only tens of thousands of years after it was possible to reproduce . 

Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.

So the company that built the megalithic complex of Göbekli Tepe was sufficiently evolved to have a rich oral tradition that included mythology, history, religion, music, dance and knowledge of the natural world, the seasons to calendrical calculations, the most effective way to use plants, animals, herbs and medicines, to astronomy. Furthermore it does not seem inconceivable that the population had developed an archaic form of writing, and in this sense the symbols identified on a pillar depicting an H and a U on its side could be significant, and also invented some type of paper, such as the parchment, on which write down the most important events and / or events worthy of being handed down to posterity faithfully. However at this point it is necessary to ask why the inhabitants of the area have used a significant amount of human and financial resources to achieve a monumental complex which is Göbekli Tepe. To answer this question it is necessary to stress once again the importance given by ancient peoples observing the sky and constellations. 

Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.

A Göbekli Tepe central pairs of pillars of each enclosure usually have an orientation in the south-east direction and seem to constitute an imaginary observe channel skyward. In general, the orientation of the central columns of the different enclosures, remember that were denominated A, B, C and D, is quite variable: D in the fence, the oldest, the central pillars are oriented approximately 7 ° east, south- east, while those of fences C, B, A are oriented respectively to13 °, 20 ° and 35 ° east, south-east. According to Schoch this different angle suggests that the builders realized new circles progressively oriented towards the east so that it was possible to follow the movement of the stars which is continuously moved due to the “precession”. More precisely what stars were observed builders? The spring equinox morning of 10,000 BC, before the sun rose in the east, an ancient priest-astronomer who is preparing to observe the sky from the imaginary channel formed by the two central pillars of D fence, he could clearly see the seven stars more brilliant characterizing the Pleiades, or Seven Sisters, as well as the upper part of the constellation Orion, the celestial hunter, whose waist was visible just above the horizon at dawn. A similar scenario recurred also in relation to the central stones of the fence C in 9500 and enclosure B in 9,000 BC From A fence you can see the same show only the spring equinox dell’8.500 BC although, due to the precessional motion (displacement axis around which the Earth completes the daily rotation), since of 8.150 B.C. about the whole Orion’s belt was no longer visible above the horizon before sunrise. From these data it is quite clear that our ancestors carefully observe the portion of the sky which was visible Orion and the Pleiades constellation. 

Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.

In this sense, another confirmation appears to come from the pillars in the shape of T identified the site, particularly those located in the center of fences, interpreted by scholars such as stylized human figures, as depicting a human torso and two arms stretched out, without head and on which were carved some details humanoids. Specifically, the D fence, on the surface of one of the central pillars carved arms, the belt – a reference to the stars of Orion’s belt – and thong fox skin that can represent the Orion Nebula as trapezoidal. Another interesting element is constituted by the presence of a small rectangular stone localized in the area north-west of the perimeter of the fence D: located approximately 1.2 meters from the ground, the stone is about 1.5 meters high and has a hole perfectly circular with a diameter of about 18-20 cm, thus making it a perfect point of observation. In this sense, it is conceivable as a priest-astronomer would have been able to crouch between the pillars of the fence D and scanning the sky through the observation hole. Although at first this hypothesis impact may seem absurd, we should highlight that on the one hand the constellation of Orion, easily recognizable in the sky for its major stars characterizing the belt, is depicted as a human torso without a head, while the other , the area around the megalithic complex of Göbekli Tepe but also in the biblical city of Jericho, many graves in which there were human skeletons have been found headless since the Mesolithic was realized that the man had a soul independent of the body who lived in the head. Therefore only the rest of the body could be buried. 

Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.

On the other hand the constellation Orion has always been the center of human beings in every culture of the world since ancient times and in this sense archaeologists have recovered in Germany some tablets in Mammoth ivory, carved some 32,500 years ago and depicting the constellation Orion in the guise of a male with a narrow torso with arms and legs outstretched. 

Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.

Based on these considerations it seems reasonable to assume as the pillars T present at Göbekli Tepe were an earthly representation of the bust of Orion, the celestial hunter, that our ancestors could look at that precise point in the sky in about 10,000 BC Most likely in the figure of Orion is recognized themselves as a people of hunter-gatherers and in this sense more confirmations seem to come from the numerous decorations, depicting animal bones and sculptures of all kinds. In this regard it is significant since archaeologist Klaus Schmidt said that “at Göbekli Tepe we face the first performance of the gods. The pillars have neither eyes nor mouth, but they have their arms and hands”. So, overall the people of Göbekli Tepe had all the characteristics of a complex civilization and evolved in a time when, according to the official history and archeology, mankind led a very simple life style, through hunting and collection. Evidently so far we have always underestimated the level of sophistication achieved by our ancestors! 

Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.

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Garden Eden and the enigma of Gobekli Tepe.