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The man, from its origins, has made the subject of attention and often veneration many natural phenomena, including the sun. The first of prehistoric astronomical knowledge, he considered the stars of dots immutable “embedded” in the celestial sphere, consisted essentially in anticipation of the motions of the Sun, the Moon and planets in the background of fixed stars. An example of this “protoastronomy” is given in the guidelines of the first megalithic monuments, which took into consideration the position of the sun throughout the year: in particular the megaliths of Nabta Playa (in Egypt) and Stonehenge (England) were built taking into account the position of the star during the summer solstice. Many other ancient monuments were constructed taking into account the apparent motions of the Sun: an example is the Temple of Kukulkan at Chichen Itza, in Mexico, which is designed to cast shadows in the shape of a snake during the equinoxes. The apparent motion of the Sun against the background of fixed stars and the horizon was used to prepare the first calendars, used to regulate agricultural practices. In fact, compared to the fixed stars, the Sun appears to follow a rotation around the Earth in a year; why our star, contrary to what is known today, was considered by the ancient Greek astronomers as one of the planets that revolved around the Earth, which was considered the center of the Universe; Such a conception is called the geocentric system or Aristotelian-Ptolemaic system. The first signs of a Babylonian civilizations will have well developed around 2700 BC This people proved to have exceptional astronomical skills, then also making important contributions to the Egyptians and to the Indian peoples. The need to improve in astronomy knowledge did not come only from the need to have a good calendar to which to refer, but also from astrological beliefs: monarchs themselves to require precise astrological predictions to the court astronomers. It was therefore the need to predict the position of the Moon and planets, to understand the mechanism of eclipses of the Sun and Moon, considered inauspicious events, to make perfect the knowledge and astrological research.


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