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In astronomy, every form of matter in the Universe that does not emit electromagnetic radiation of any kind, or that it emits with intensity undetectable by instruments.
Its presence is indirectly assessed by gravitational effects on the motion of stars and galaxies. It is assumed that dark matter accounts for about 90% of matter in the Universe. Despite comprehensive maps of the Universe close, covering the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays, they were able to identify only 10% of its mass, as declared in 2001 at the New York Times by Bruce H. Margon, an astronomer at ‘ University of Washington: “it’s a fairly embarrassing situation to admit that we can not find 90% [of the matter] of the Universe. »It was initially referred to as “missing mass”, despite there actually matter, as they are observable gravitational effects of its mass. However, this matter does not emit any electromagnetic radiation and is therefore not detectable by spectroscopic analysis instruments, from which the adjective “dark.” The term missing mass might be misleading, since it is not the mass fail, but only its “light.” It should be noted that the concept of dark matter makes sense within the current standard model of cosmology based on the Big Bang, for two main reasons: you could not otherwise explain the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters over time calculated from the initial event the Big Bang itself in a cosmological scenario like the present, in which the sole force cosmological gravity, it would explain how galaxies can keep intact, as the visible matter, composed of baryons, it is not able to develop sufficient gravitational pull.
Conversely, if the present theory proves wrong, you might not have the need for dark matter, since the assumption of its existence comes only from a breach of a mathematical model and not by any definite evidence experimental. Dark matter is not to be confused with the different hypothesis that goes by the name of dark energy.
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