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Cairo, Egypt City, the state capital and the capital of the governorate of the same name. It is located in a favorable position in the transition zone between the Lower and Upper Egypt, in easy communication with the Red Sea and Arabia, where the Nile traverse easily. The climate is very mild in winter and hot in summer and very dry. The vast water system has also allowed the city to expand to the east beyond the local location of Cairo; This area would have been too far from the ancient course of the Nile to be able to benefit. Just south of the present town are the ruins of Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt founded in 3100 BC approximately Menes after he united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt, although the capital was later moved to Heliopolis, further south to Thebes and under the Ptolemaic dynasty, in Alexandria, Egypt. The first settlement in the area of the Cairo was a Roman fort built around 150 A.D. and known as the Babylon Fortress, located in close proximity to an ancient Egyptian canal linking the Nile to the Mar Rosso. An Coptic small town grew slowly around the fortress and was against the fortress of Babylon that fell upon the armies of Amr ibn al-‘As , from Palestine. The battle brought in 639 A.D. the capitulation the besieged Babylon and gave the conqueror soon in order that we erect for a military camp that became the capital of the newly-governorate which Amr became owner immediately by order of Caliph Umar. Socket for agreement the city of Alexandria – important cities of Hellenistic culture, and second only to Constantinople, full of sympathizers for the Byzantine Empire under which Egypt until then he had been living -‘Amr merely enjoy privileges associated with his office and met many criticisms until his subsequent deposition by Uthmān ibn’Affān. Throughout the period of the Caliphate Orthodox Egypt he gave no further news of him, if not for the strong discontent arising from the operation of its administrative governor ‘Abd Allāh ibn Sa’d b. Abi Sarh, who contributed greatly to the assassination of the third caliph. Throughout the Umayyad period things did not change, and the country took advantage of the very wise administration of the brother of the caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Abd al-Aziz Ibn Marwan.The action was equally distracted Abbasid Egypt and was to give course to the regional impulses and needs of decentralization in a caliphate now too stretched to be well-functioning Ahmad ibn Tulun took power in the ninth century, starting a happy rebirth of the country, both economically, both in the political and cultural.