al-Fayyum, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

al-Fayyum, is a city in Egypt, the capital of the homonymous governorate. It is located 130 km south-west of Cairo and occupies part of the ancient city Crocodilopoli.

Egypt, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.


The city of al-Fayyum is located within the homonymous oasis about 30 km west of the Nile. The oasis with an area of 1270 km² is the largest of the western desert oases and is irrigated with water coming from the Nile through a channel, called Bahr Yussef, which flows into a depression located to the west of the Nile valley. The channel crosses the archaeological sites of el-Lahun and Gurob, as well as the city of al-Fayyum and then terminate in the brackish lake Qarun which in ancient times was of fresh water and was known as Meride.

Abu Gurab, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.

Abu Gurab

Although only a few traces remain of the monumental buildings, the area of the Fayyum is of particular archaeological interest for the study of Hellenistic and Roman Egypt and, more generally, of that globalization of the Mediterranean first realized by Alexander and, later, by ’empire. In fact, in addition to the valuable portraits of the Fayyum, in the area were found numerous deposits of papyri, well-preserved thanks to the peculiar climate of the region, which returned fragments of lost Greek or early Christian works, important historical evidence (among other things a list of Egyptian pharaohs with related chronologies that helped the scholars to reconstruct the history of the dynasties) as well as a meticulous documentation of daily life covering the span of about a millennium.

Old Kingdom, of Egypt, collapsed about climate change Original article of Alessandro Brizzi.

Old Kingdom

Most of the papyri were found in the graves, buried with the dead or even used to wrap the mummies, or in garbage dumps. 

A million mummies all together. This is the esteem for the necropolis of Fag el-Gamous, at the eastern end of Fayyum. Archaeologists have carved more than 1700 burials in about thirty years, but the extension of the site and the density of the bodies have led to the calculation of that crazy figure. The necropolis was used from the Roman period to the Byzantine period by ordinary people, so the dead are buried without coffins or special outfits. Mummification is also due only to the dry climate of the area. But there were interesting finds such as perfectly preserved fabrics (funeral shrouds and a pair of colored baby shoes), the mummy of an 18-month-old girl with four bracelets and that of a tall man even 2.13 m. The real mystery, however, is for what site a huge cemetery would serve, since the nearby village is too small and the nearby city of Philadelphia already has its burial areas.

al-Fayyum, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.



To open the video  click on the image, good view from your Alessandro Brizzi.

al-Fayyum, definition and study. A-Z index of Cognitio.