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Thebes Ancient city of Upper Egypt, in today’s place of Karnak and Luxor. Unknown throughout the Old Kingdom, assumes importance, for the commercially strategic position, in the interim period, when the princes of Thebes, submitted prior to the dynasty of Coptic, are opposed as rivals to the rightful king of Heracleopolis and with the XI dynasty them win reconstituting the Egyptian unit, T. capital of the kingdom.
The next dynasty, although Theban origin, transports in the northern capital, but T. enriched with monuments and temples. With the Hyksos T. again has a central role in the politics of Upper Egypt: his king take the initiative of the successful fight against the invaders.
Soon after, began the great Egyptian expansion in Asia, T. is the capital and it heads the immense riches that flow into Egypt. In this era T. it assumes the monumental city character and sumptuous, which will continue even when its capital position will first be weakened at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty, the abandonment in which is left by Amenhotep IV following his religious reform and the founding of new Akhetaton capital, up to Tutankhamun, then during the nineteenth dynasty, the importance assumed by Tanis.
With the twenty-first Dynasty of the T. fate and the Delta begin to be detached, with the formation T of a theocratic state, with autonomy and sometimes full independence. The power of the high priest of Amun, the head of this state, is weakened when, under Osorkon III, of this one, with the title of a Divine worshiper of Amon women of the family, takes on the god’s representative on earth. The Adorers of the succession occurred because of adoption, and so from this moment the most powerful dynasties of the Ethiopians and Saiti can closely monitor the Theban policy. In 666, with the second Assyrian conquest of Egypt, T. was sacked and destroyed; in 525 they will reach the Persians. With the story of T., it is closely connected to all of Egypt, from the end of the Old Kingdom onwards.
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