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The Indus Valley civilization was an ancient civilization, geographically extended mainly along the Indus River in the Indian subcontinent, but also along the Sarasvati, a river of India now dry. It is also known as “Harappan civilization”, the first known site, discovered in 1857, but excavated only in the twenties of the twentieth century. The Indus Valley civilization is one of the oldest civilizations in the world, along with those of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, characterized by the development of agriculture, urbanization and the use of writing. Urban development takes place earlier in Egypt and Mesopotamia, but the Indus civilization experienced a greater geographical coverage (current Pakistan and western India). Of the 1,052 sites identified so far, more than 140 are located on the banks of a course of seasonal water that irrigated the main agricultural production area of this culture. According to some this hydrographic system, a permanent, it may be identified with the river Ghaggar-Hakra, identified by some scholars with Saraswati of the Rig Veda. His writing has not yet been deciphered, and then ignore the language features. It has recently been questioned whether it’s writing but rather a system of symbols. The Sumerian and Akkadian texts refer repeatedly to a people with whom you had active trade, called Meluhha, which could be identified with the Indus Valley civilization, perhaps with the name given by its own inhabitants. The term is perhaps attributable to the Dravidian Met-AKAM, with the meaning of “high lands”, and may also have given rise to the term Mleccha Sanskrit, non-Indo-European origin, with the meaning of “barbarian, foreigner”. The use of elaborate ornaments, sculptures and faience figurines, appeared and spread the seals, writing, ceramics decorated with standardized reasons; ritual objects, show a strong push to cultural integration, which made almost completely disappear the previous regional differences.

 

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