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The antediluvian architecture Ancient Egypt.
According to official historiography in the Nile Valley around 3100 BC He was born with the advent of the First Dynasty pharaohs, the Egyptian civilization. However, some researchers believe that the oldest traces of this magnificent civilization are in fact attributable to a highly advanced people who lived in the fertile and pleasant valley of the Nile since ancient times. This ancient people was allegedly driven with extreme wisdom and justice of men-gods, or rather “living gods”, an elite bearers of Knowledge and Knowledge astronomer-priests, and whose material evidence only in recent decades are gradually emerging from the sands of time.
Among the many ruined temples of ancient Egypt, the Osireion stands out not only for its excellent state of preservation, but also for the exquisite workmanship of the many reliefs that decorate its towering walls. Located at Abydos, 12 kilometers west of the Nile, this is the temple which was recorded by Egyptologists to Seti I, ruler of the XIX Dynasty which ruled Egypt from 1306 to 1290 BC.
Known primarily as the father of the most famous Ramses II (1290-1224 BC), the pharaoh biblical Exodus, its temple of Abydos was dedicated to Osiris, the “Lord of Eternity”, in which in the Pyramid Texts are saying, “you went away, but you come back, you’ve been sleeping, but you wake up, you’re dead, but you will live … go to the stream, ascend the current … traveling around Abydos in this your form of spirit that they ordered gods you belonged ».However, to better understand the importance of the figure of Osiris is never wise to know how much better retracing the main stages of his myth. Specifically, the most comprehensive exhibition of the original myth is provided by Plutarch, the Greek historian who lived in the first century AD, and said that, after bringing the gifts of civilization to his people, teaching them all sorts of useful practices, abolishing cannibalism and human sacrifices and equipping of the first code of laws, Osiris left Egypt and traveled the world to bring the benefits of civilization to the other nations. He never forced the barbarians he encountered to accept their own laws but always tried to convince them with reasoning, then transmitting their teachings by means of hymns and songs.
However during his absence 72 men of his court plotted against him, campeggiati by Seth brother. On his return the conspirators invited him to a banquet where he put away a magnificent wooden chest and gold for the diner to the inside whose body had adapted to perfection. Osiris did not know that the chest had been tailored for him. Therefore, when the guests tried one at a time to enter, they could not. Osiris, however, lay down comfortably inside. But he did not have time to go out to the conspirators nailed the lid and threw the chest into the Nile. But, instead of sinking as expected, quickly he walked away floating up to the sea.
At this point intervened the goddess Isis, wife of Osiris, or from all the magic at his disposal, he found the chest and hid it in a secret place. But Seth, his evil brother, while hunting in the swamps found it, opened it and gripped by a savage fury cut the king’s body into 14 pieces that scattered all around. Isis once again set off to the rescue of her husband built a small covered with reed papyrus boat and walked on the Nile in search of the remains. When he found them he made the powerful spells to reunite the dismembered parts so that the body regained the primitive form so that Isis, taking the form of kite, dropped on his phallus to receive the seed. Thus it was conceived Horus, who became an adult and took revenge Seth, subduing and restoring his father’s earthly kingdom. Its shares to magically allowed Osiris to undergo a process of astral rebirth to become god of the dead and the king of the underworld (Lord of the Duat), and from those regions, according to legend, returning from time to time on earth in the likeness of a mortal man. It is therefore on the basis of this archetypal myth that the Egyptians built up the tradition that every pharaoh was identified directly with Horus in life and in death god with the god Osiris and always simultaneously with Ra, the sun, of which the Pyramid Texts they say “Horus meant that you enclose all the gods of your embrace.”
The myth of the dismemberment of his body showed that developed around the relics of Osiris cults in several districts of the country including Abydos, Busiris, Memphis and Philae. And just at Abydos it fell the distinction of possessing the relic perhaps most important: the head of God. The relic was kept in looking obsolete wooden fetish: the top of a pole was fixed a perforated container shaped like a bell, in which He lays the head of the deity. Unfortunately all the relics of Osiris were lost, as well as its legendary tomb. It is therefore evident why all the reliefs in the temple of Abydos remembered closely the figure of Osiris: reliefs depicting the king civilizing, on whose head there were a variety of crowns rather elaborate, in his role god of the dead and enthroned accompanied by Isis, his beautiful and mysterious bride.
Also inside the temple there were some important bearing inscriptions such as the list of 120 Ancient Egypt gods together with the names of their principal temples. Also was present the list of names of 76 pharaohs who had preceded the advent of Seti I on the throne, enrolled within oval cartouches (“List of Abydos King”). This table covers a period of nearly 1600 years, from 3,000 BC to about 1,300 BC, Seti I’s reign, and was an eloquent testimony to the continuity of the tradition that is the belief, or the memory, in a very remote past, the existence of a Prime Time ruled by gods and demigods.
Behind the temple of Seti I, it was found a large underground construction associated since the first written documents to Osiris and defined by the greek historian Strabo, who visited Abydos in the first century B.C. .: “… An exceptional construction made of massive stone … containing a source located at a great depth, so that it reaches down from the ceiling for tunnels in turn constituted by monoliths of exceptional size and invoice. A channel leading from the great river at that place …. “ A few hundred years after the visit of Strabo, when the Ancient Egyptian religion was supplanted by the new Christian cult, the silt of the Nile and the desert sands began to pile in Osireion, filling it centimeter by centimeter, century after century, until it was not completely forgotten until the early twentieth century, when archaeologists Flinders Petrie and Margaret Murray rediscovered, although it was reported fully to light only in the course of excavations conducted in 1913-1914 by Professor Naville. Naville also commented somewhat taken aback a block that he happened to be measured in the building of the northern aisle, a monolith on the length of over 7.5 meters. Equally surprising was the fact that the cells carved in the perimeter walls were not paved, but as it turned out, were full of sand and earth more and more wet. The building is about 15 meters below the level of the temple of Seti I and is accessed via a staircase that described a southeastern corner that leads to a monumental stone gate built with cyclopean blocks of granite and sandstone. Passed the entrance leads to a huge rectangular platform sandstone the size of 2.5 × 1.20 meters, and at whose ends a ladder led to a depth of about 3.5 meters below the water level, which formed a rectangular stud at the center of two tanks, one rectangular and the other square have been excavated.
The platform also was holding the two massive colonnades mentioned by Naville, each of which consisted of 5 stocky monoliths of pink granite, 2.40 meters wide, 3.60 meters high and with an average weight of 100 tons. On top of these columns megalithic there were some lugs of granite whose presence leaves hypothesize as originally the building was entirely covered by a series of monolithic slabs arranged side by side and horizontally. The stone island was surrounded by a moat full of water about 3 meters and enclosed by immense wide perimeter around 6 meters consisting of large red sandstone blocks arranged as the polygonal pieces of a puzzle. Just in the enormous thickness of this wall they were carved the 17 cells (six east, six in the west, two to the south and three to the north). Faced with the three northern cells there was a long transverse chamber, with the ceiling and limestone walls. A similar transverse chamber, also of limestone but without the roof intact, was immediately south of the big door. Finally, the entire building was surrounded by an outer wall of limestone so that the final installment of rectangles inserted into each other, ie, proceeding from outside to inside: wall, ditch, moat, plinth.
Although Naville asserted in its report how the Osireion was the oldest building ever found in the land of Egypt, at the end of the site it was again the subject of archaeological investigations World War, this time conducted by Professor Henry Frankfort, teacher of Pre-Classical Antiquity at the University of London, and also in this case, as already happened with the Pyramids and the Sphinx complex, the identification of some inscriptions and a terracotta fragment bearing the inscription “Seti is the service of Osiris,” it was sufficient to regard the underground as the cenotaph of Seti I.
However, in my view, the evidence is very fragile, and allow to hypothesize how the action of the father of Ramesses II was limited to a restoration and extension of an existing structure by many millennia. On the other hand evidence in support of this hypothesis it comes from the same of Osireion architecture that has many common elements with the Valley Temple of Khafre and the Sphinx Temple. In this sense Naville observed as such similarity showed that the Osireion, the Temple of Khafre’s valley temple and the Sphinx belonged to the same era, when it was being built with huge stones. Similarities that are evident even on the huge monolithic blocks of Osireion showing unmistakable signs of the erosive action of rain which could only have been exposed in sufficient quantities in the period from 12,000 to 10,000 BC, Prime Time or Zep Tepi, when the land of Egypt, that today is a desert, was a lush savannah.
It is quite evident that the Egyptian architecture as a whole conceals many mysteries far from being revealed. Specifically for of Osireion building, like many other structures, to each other with pinpoint precision they were used giant monolithic blocks of granite or limestone united, leaving no doubt about the considerable scientific and technological skills in the possession of the ancient architects who designed the majestic complex.
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