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Space missions on the Sun. Space Astronomy. With the advent, in the early fifties, the space age and the beginning of the exploration of the Solar System, there have been many probes specially designed to study our star.Solar system

Space missions on the Sun. Space Astronomy.

The first satellites designed to observe the Sun were the Pioneer 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 of NASA, launched between 1959 and 1968. The probes orbited around the Sun at a distance of slightly less than that of Earth’s orbit and They carried the first detailed measurements of the wind and the solar magnetic field.Sun 360°

Space missions on the Sun. Space Astronomy.

The probe Pioneer 9 operated for a long time, transmitting data until 1987. In the seventies the Helios probe 1 and the space station Skylab they provided scientists with new and meaningful information on the issuance of the solar wind and on the crown. Additional data were provided by the probe NASA’s Solar Maximum Mission, launched in 1980, which was intended to observe the ultraviolet radiation, gamma, and X-rays emanating from solar flares during the period of maximum activity. The nineties saw the launch of numerous probes, such as the Japanese Yohkoh (1991), designed to observe solar flares to the wavelengths of X-rays, and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO, 1995), a collaboration between ESA and NASA; the latter in particular has warranted since its launch a constant observation of our star in most of the wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, allowing also the discovery of a large number of sliding comets.NASA livestream

Space missions on the Sun. Space Astronomy.

These probes, however, have made detailed observations of the Sun only the equatorial regions, as their orbits were located on the ecliptic plane. The Ulysses spacecraft was instead designed to study the polar regions, operating also measurements of the solar wind and magnetic field strength. Launched in 1990, the Ulysses was initially directed to Jupiter in order to exploit the gravitational slingshot effect of the gas giant and move away from the plane of the planetary orbits.Jupiter 360°

Space missions on the Sun. Space Astronomy.

In 1998 it was launched the TRACE probe, designed to identify the connections between the magnetic field of the star and the associated plasma structures, thanks to the help of high-resolution images of the Sun’s photosphere and the lower atmosphere.

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Space missions on the Sun. Space Astronomy.