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Solar System, after numerous human exploration missions to the moon in the seventies, the man never came back into space if not limited to the thin band between 300 and 600 km altitude, on board the US shuttle or the Russian station Mir. Nevertheless, space exploration has incessantly continued with various types of sensors; in it he was accompanied by a growing awareness of the scientific and methodological advantages that result from even consider the Earth as one of the nine planets of the solar system, with the gradual entry of geologists, chemists, biologists in space research side of astronomers and physicists , and the birth of a discipline called comparative planetology.
The extraterrestrial space allows you to see the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from γ-rays to radio band, overcoming the limitations imposed by our atmosphere; This property is exploited by any kind of astronomical space mission, both in low orbit, as with the Hubble Space Telescope, is in geostationary orbit, for example. with the International Ultraviolet Explorer, or in a highly elliptical orbit, as with the astrometric satellite Hipparcos. The Sun was naturally investigated in great detail by a number of satellites. Among the more recent missions purely exploratory, we analyze below the joint ESA-NASA Ulysses spacecraft made from. Mercury has not been visited after the Mariner 10 of 1974-75, who managed to photograph him for about half of its surface, showing a cratered terrain like the moon.
The Pioneer Venus in 1979 he obtained ultraviolet images of the thick cloud cover that prevents us from seeing the Venusian soil. Space exploration of the Earth is now the subject of daily routine, not only by virtue of the Shuttle or the MIR, but also because of the relative ease of sending important scientific instrumentation with smaller and cheaper rockets, or at least, with stratospheric balloons.
Mars, the last of the rocky planets before the gas giants, is the subject of a series of more sophisticated all missions, which also prepare future human missions. The asteroid belt is now been crossed by a number of direct probes to outer space. The four outer gaseous planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune), essentially consisting of H and He, have no solid surface.
At their center, there must have a core of ice and rocks in the liquid phase. Finally, we consider the ongoing exploration of the outer solar system, beyond the last known planet, where you are moving the Pioneer and Voyager probes, then it must be stressed that man with his machines is now beyond dell ‘ last planet.
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