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Pantelleria: The Mysterious Island disappearance of the Ancestors
. You are having discussed enigmatic atypical individuals found in predynastic Egyptian earth I want to bring to the attention of Cognitio friends the mysterious island where, according to the texts written on the walls of the Temple of Edfu, came the Ancestors that generated the gods primitive Egyptians.
Topic will also give me the opportunity to talk about a discovery made in August 2015 that had a significant media hype, but as always happens whenever it would be called into question entrenched “certainties” derived from more than established preconceptions, even a rebuttal . This find, in fact, not only would be very compatible with the dark primordial world that gravitate around the island mentioned in the texts but also with the placement of the Ancestors supposed to me in the first half of the ninth millennium BC and with the ancient gods Builders. Of course for those who have this mysterious island orthodox views can be associated with one of the many islands of the Delta and the Nile. Several, however, the beliefs of alternative researchers because for some it is a clear reference to the mythical island of Atlantis Plato; for others the legendary Thule (home of the Hyperboreans to reconcile with the many mysterious individuals predynastic high, mighty and blonde found in Egypt) and others equally legendary Esperia, the island of the Amazons in Tritonis Libyan swamp.
As we will see, however, this “dark” primordial island could be part of a much more tangible context and, above all, much closer. But we proceed with order. Among the scholars is a very widespread opinion that the Egyptians became suddenly a megalithic culture at the beginning of the Third Dynasty (with the construction of the Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara), which would then peaked in the Fourth Dynasty with the monumental buildings of Giza .
This belief, however, would be denied not only by the fact that the pyramid of Djoser does not seem to have been the first pyramid structure to be built in Egypt (so much so that in addition to the many Egyptian depictions of prior similar structures for centuries to Djoser’s reign as well Manetone already attaches to the fourth king of the I Dynasty the construction of pyramids) but also from the many structures made with large boulders present in Egypt. It is very difficult, therefore, do not perceive the dawn of Egyptian history the presence of a megalithic culture whose descendants would perpetuate the traditions it for millennia. Probability of which, like it or not, it must be taken into account because it amply supported by the great monoliths Nabta Playa and by the Gods Builders primitive mentioned in the texts of Edfu temple of Horus-Behudety.
Especially the latter is very interesting because it does not belong to the usual Egyptian pantheon as mentioned among the Ancestors (tpyw ‘) that gave rise to the subsequent primitive, suggest that they could be linked to the mythical ancestral traditions previous era (Prime Time) that would have seen protagonists the same Ancestors. In scenes that illustrate the worship rituals dedicated to these mysterious characters, in fact, an Egyptologist, noted the many parallels between djdw-gods (who in later traditions was associated with small Ennead) and tpyw’-Ancestors and the fact that many times these terms alternate. This leads her to suggest that djdw should refer to the divinity of another former sacred world that could possibly fade and, since these djdw represented the ancestors of the sacred world that was to follow, it’s likely that would indicate the spiritual form of the past. Needless to say, for reasons of space it is impossible to summarize all the texts engraved on the temple walls (think that the French Egyptologist Emile Chassinat took 40 years to copy and publish all the inscriptions published in a monumental work composed of 14 volumes of which eight with more than 3,000 pages of hieroglyphic texts) for which briefly bring to the attention of friends Cognitio some intriguing points. Some of those, namely, that for their problematic reading for unusual expressions, for subsequent adaptations or because incomplete or deteriorated still continue to have a dark meaning giving rise only to very speculative interpretations and that, according to the beliefs (orthodox or not) who comments on them, inevitably they have several scenarios and, at times, also very distorted. In these texts, mentioning to be taken from an ancient holy book that reported the words of the wise, there are references to ancient divine beings be they Seniors, Tjenen Descendants, Sons of the Creator, Glorious Spirit of the First Age, Children of the Sages, of Builders and Augusti Shebtiu; to a mysterious island in part reeds covered call “Island of Trampling” (Yw titi) who was in the dark in the middle of the primordial waters and also a distinction between the members of this divine society. In this group, in fact, there were two leaders, Wa (the Far) and ‘Aă (the Great), but they were only the island Gentlemen of Trampling and, apparently, only later would be united to Shebtiu (after that the latter had gone to visit them) because in the temple pylon are depicted without Wa and ‘Aă. And if the names of Shebtiu are very engaging (the Far away, the Great, the Sailor, the Head Sacred, the Creator of the Earth Snake, the Lord of the Two Hearts, the Lord of Life and of the Dominion and the Lord from the chest Mighty that made the slaughter-soul that lives on the Blood), more are the “Place where the enemies were annihilated”, the “Territory Ancestor”, the “Place of the reunification” of these gods, the coven Island Flame, the Egg Island in which resided the first two generations of the Creators (the first was Mesenty while the second is called those of Kas, still undecipherable references), the Isle of the two flames and from primordial pond near the shores which lived the architects of creation.
Obviously, then, there is the hawk Horus, the roost on which rested and an enigmatic invitation of Shebtiu made to Falcone to go and visit the place. In addition, among other things created a symbolic protection of the site, they will also know that they were created two deities (Segemeh and Sekem-Her) symbolized by two sticks or rods that were tasked to repel the danger from the island (the enemy Snake ) and it was also brought djed (that suggest texts also restored by Shebtiu, which would indicate that the Ancestors already had skills in the art of working the stone, by the way corroborated by the presence of the Gods Constructors). What intrigues you the most, though, is that creating longer interested possessions (Pay-lands also Blessed Islands called) and other sacred places because everything would seem to indicate that this primordial world eventually would include 10 territories whose names are also mentioned: Cairn of Glowing, Ra Island, Pillar-Died on Earth, High Hill, Oil Tree, the One who is rich in Kas, Mesen, the One who made prosperous places, Behedet (which also appears to have the first of the Mounds name) and Place of Spirits.
Obviously texts recounting the various stages of creation speaks of gods, prayers, incantations and events interrelated but clearly describe events (later-turned with the passage of time in myths that later amalgamated the traditions) who saw real protagonists physical entities. It ‘very difficult, therefore, does not recognize in these mysterious divine beings possible leaders of the capacities proud belligerent groups entered the competition (most likely for the seizure of an important resource) that eventually would then formed an alliance. To support this, in fact, it seems to be the term titi because it literally means “step on the enemies”, the “Place of reunification” and other names by which it quoted the sacred primordial world, including Isle of Struggle and Island of Peace. Moreover, given that the establishment was not a single act but would gradually covered more places you might even come to think that the alliance or merger of these groups had strengthened their power by bringing gradually to conquer new territories.
It may not be risky, therefore, recognize in these remote characters, opponents first and then allies, the ancestors of those still obscure groups which straddles the seventh / sixth millennium BC for their greater knowledge and their organization they would be able to impose itself on increasingly large areas of the West Delta because we must not forget that for the traditions Egyptian kingdoms of the first divine kings were characterized by continuous rebellions of men. Obviously those with orthodox views identifies the place of creation and names mentioned with the city of Edfu and neighboring territories, but as the priests of the most important of Egyptian cultural centers associated it with their city, it is likely that all had a single remote source that with time would be further enriched by other ancient traditions related to various cultural centers. You’ll notice then that the perch on which rested Horus resembles the primordial sprout emerged from the water in the first morning of the world on which rested the mythical Phoenix and Rundle Clark in his book “Myth and Symbol in the Ancient Egypt” identifies the distant earth shrouded in mystery and magic beyond the world from which this legendary bird came with the “Island of Fire, the place of eternal light beyond the borders of the world where they were born or resurrected gods and from where they were sent around the world … “. This Island Fire has perhaps a link with the Isle of Flame mentioned in the texts of Edfu? It also has the Island with the Flame mentioned countless times in the Book of the Dead?
In addition to the Island of Fire, or the Flame Two Flames, other evidence would seem to suggest the possible location of the mysterious primordial sacred world related to the Ancestors and volcanic activity, some names of Pay-lands, from primordial pond shores, the enemy Snake, obsidian, the hawk, the two Segemeh divinity and Sekem-Her, numerous Saharan rock paintings and remote immortalize individuals with a bird’s head, the Egyptian gods with a bird’s head (first of all the falcon Horus) and then the djed.
Of course an Island of Flame, Fire, or the Two Flames immediately brings to mind a volcanic island, and among the irreconcilable contexts with a placement of this mysterious island, Sicily (Italy) has a major role not only for the presence of ‘Etna, the largest volcano in Europe, but also because before the ski Holocene sea levels its territory would be much larger, as indeed that of the Tunisian coast, which could facilitate the possible migration of remote clan from peninsula to North Africa and vice versa. At the time of the last glacial maximum, also the Sicilian Channel would look completely different because, in addition to Pantelleria, in the north-western sector there would be many other islands and islets while the Maltese archipelago would be one with the Sicilia. This then would allow the crossing of the strait between Sicily and Tunisia not only to view but also in a much shorter time than needed in our day.
From the picture, in addition, you will notice that before the Holocene rise in the level of the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Sicily there were just 10 isolated areas emerged very reconcilable with 10 pay-lands of the texts. One lucky coincidence? Probably yes, but as you will see, not only all the clues seem to converge on this very ancient part of the sea but in the primordial sacred world of the ancestors of the Pantelleria island may have had a role.
Surely the Cognitio friends argue that the peak of the last ice age to date back approximately 18,000 years ago, but it is in this era that could be part of the distant ancestors of those who were later recalled by the Egyptian traditions as Ancestors of the primitive. In addition, the colonization of Sicily is traced precisely to that period. Since the Sicily channel would begin to gradually change appearance for the sea rising around 12,000 years ago, this body of water would have allowed for a smooth navigability for about six millennia favoring so for thousands of years not only possible clan migrations the two sides but could also have been an important guideline for the exchange of a very significant asset for the time that the obsidian in prehistoric times represented one of the most sought-after goods, so much so that it is also called the gold of prehistory.
Pantelleria, even Black Pearl called the Mediterranean by the black diamond of its volcanic rocks, is rich in suggestive as unique natural beauty including high cliffs over 300 meters, beautiful bays, lava flows solidifying have created amazing landscapes, caves, hot springs and the famous “Favare”, jets of water vapor that protrude intermittently from the rocks splits. And, because volcanic soil, is also an island fertile and therefore compatible with pay-lands Tree Oil and the One who made prosperous places.
Its geological evolution began more than 300,000 years ago and over the millennia saw several eruptive activity cycles. Between 44,000 and 35,000 years ago, in the southeastern part of the caldera of Cinque Denti, emission of lava flows and pyroclastic filled about two-thirds of the caldera forming the volcano of Mount Gibele while around 18,000 years ago, the lifting of the north-central portion caldera led to the formation of the Big Mountain, the island’s highest peak (836 m). Between 18,000 and 3,000 years ago, in addition, there were also important eruptions from pericalderici centers at radial fractures. You will notice, then, that when the Channel of Sicily was still full of dry land on the island of Pantelleria not only would be very compatible with the Island of Fire or Flame but also with that of the Two Flames for possible simultaneous eruptions of two eruptive centers and with darkness, precisely due to the eruptions that would have enveloped the island. We must not forget then the charming Mirror of Venus, a lake with turquoise and crystal clear water fed by rain and numerous pools of sulphurous water bubbling on the water. This pond, in fact, has been formed in a basin of calderica origin at the foot of Bugeber in the northern part of the island and the bubbling and bubbling sludge give it a lunar aspect that is well reconcile with that of the body of water from the primordial shores near which lived the architects of creation. For further increasing the compatibility of Pantelleria, moreover, also the Big Mountain associable to the Pay-land First Grave (Behedet) while the Pay-land Alta Collina may be associated with one of the reliefs of the minor volcanic craters already at that time inactive (Cuddia Attalora , Cuddia Midas, etc.). In enemy Snake, however, it could easily recognize a fluid lava flow that one of the well would accord with the island’s craters Snake Creator of the texts Earth.
Obsidian is a volcanic glass that is formed by a very rapid cooling of viscous lave very rich in silicon (SiO2> 65%) and, due to its characteristic of being able to be chipped in a particularly sharp parts, since ancient times it was used man to the realization of sharp instruments, so much so that his first recorded use (on the Red Sea coast), dates back to 125,000 years ago. Despite this, however, it is believed that the spread of its use began in Neolithic but already the Magdalenian (15000/10000 B.C.) used it, especially the one coming from the Carpathians. Because obsidian artifacts were also found to many hundreds of kilometers from reservoirs and this lava glass has typical features exclusive source of flow that date back to the place of origin, it was possible to reconstruct the streets of the ancient trade. Inevitably the question arises: if the obsidian was used since ancient times already for the Magdalenian was a very well researched, because its spread in the Mediterranean would be started only after several millennia? Needless to say, the simple answer of the majority of scholars is not convincing because vitiated by entrenched preconceptions. In fact, although there is evidence of colonization of Australia via sea as early as 50,000 BC and traces of the presence of Solutrean (20000/16000 BC) in the New World, not only believes that navigation in the Mediterranean dates back only to the Neolithic but also the Neolithic sailors have not yet the experience and skills necessary to perform in the open sea crossings . How to explain then the tuna fishing traces found in Menton (France) dating back to 15,000 BC?
Fortunately, however, for a long time there are also dissenting voices such as Louis-René Nougier (holder of the first chair of Prehistoric Archeology established in France and discovered the graffiti and the Cave of Ruffignac paintings) he writes: “… remember that men and canoes reached Mallorca nell’8736 BC as a minimum, and that Corsica is populated at least since 6610 B.C. Shipping links are thus attested in the western Mediterranean as early as the ninth millennium BC with men, women and cattle … “ It is conceivable, therefore, that the obsidian sea lanes of the four islands in the western Mediterranean Sea were older than millennia than widely believed and that the sea elevation could have erased remote coastal settlements in which they would have used artifacts this lava glass coming from Sardinia, from Palmarola, from Pantelleria and Lipari. In addition, since in Europe the obsidian was good among the most sought since Magdalenian, you also can not be ruled out that the tools of their ancestors were preserved from generation to generation for centuries jealously which would explain the findings (at least at the moment) only later Neolithic contexts. Perhaps the bloody struggles implied in Edfu texts were due to monitoring marine obsidian Sicily Channel? And interesting to note, in fact, that despite being in Pantelleria were also found were identified five obsidian flows local artefacts which would not be attributable to any of castings notes. Given the long volcanic activity on the island, therefore, it may not be too farfetched to think that one or more obsidian flows may be now much below sea level and at the time when the Sicilian Channel was dotted with land area would be surface allowing an easy exploitation. If that was so, so, well framed bloody struggles between remote clan entered the competition for control of that part of the sea that would allow the export of obsidian and their subsequent alliance. The falcons are birds whose qualities, since ancient times, they would certainly not escaped the ancient hunters because hunting patterns of perfection for which these animals would be emulated and magnify in their magical and religious traditions. Traditions that some clans continued to perpetuate for generations and millennia that influenced even those groups encountered in the course of their ancient migrations. Who knows, in fact, how many times these careful and scrupulous observers of the environment that gave them subsistence admired the pride of these birds of prey, their keen eyesight, long flights planed, abrupt turns and beaten to capture their prey. And who knows how many times, fascinated and intrigued, they stopped to observe their autumn migration to the south waiting to see them return when the weather would return milder. Well, we do not believe but the most important starting point for the spring migration of several thousand of these north raptors Cape Bon (Tunisia), from which, right through the Strait of Sicily, reach the Sicilian west coast which then many thousands continue towards the Apennines to arrive in the northern territories.
Because Pantelleria is known to bird watchers for the huge number of birds observed, including its also many species of birds of prey in spring arrive in large flocks from Cape Bon sailing on the sea pushed by updrafts, it would be too bizarre recognize in ‘ Falcone enigmatic invitation to go to visit the place a very impressive and spectacular as possible reference to the arrival of these birds on the island? A further clue that links Pantelleria to the primordial world of the ancestors of the primitive Egyptians are the two deities created Segemeh and Sekem-Her and the lyrics were symbolized by two sticks or rods that had to fend off the danger from the island, the Serpent enemy. And if, given the presence in the texts of the Gods Builders, were two stone symbols? In locations Serraglia, in fact, there are monoliths, two of which are side by side, which would seem to demarcate a sacred area. What makes them interesting is the fact that the complex was built right next to Favare the town, that is, characterized by fumaroles coming out intermittently from the clefts of the rocks and remote individuals might be associated with the breath of Mother Earth, and then just Tanen of that in the texts created Segemeh and Sekem-Her.
Surely the Cognitio friends will object that the megalithic phenomenon is developed in Europe only by the Neolithic onwards, not knowing, however, that it is much older. In Regourdou French site (near Lascaux), in fact, a Neanderthal burial was found, and a rectangular pit lined with stones, prior to burial, the remains of more than twenty bears in. A slab weighing about one ton. In Saint Germain la-Riviere (always close Lascaux), however, in a Magdalenian tomb he was found the skeleton of a woman because of the complexity of the burial and the richness of the grave goods (also referred to assets from very distant lands) was called the Lady of Saint Germain la-Riviere because it indicates clearly already a social stratification. The funerary structure was composed of 4 blocks supporting two plates that appeared to protect the deceased and the largest lintel, supported by 2 piers further driven into the ground, had a ring in correspondence of the head while the smaller protected the folded lower limbs. C14 dating to 15,780 +/- 200 BP. Again inevitably the question arises: if in Europe the use of large monoliths is already found in Neanderthal and Magdalenian contexts, because the megalithic would blossom at large only from the Neolithic? We know that the stone can not be dated so all the C14 tests are carried out on organic remains found in neighboring contexts. Unlike that of Saint Germain la-Riviere and countless others, though, the contexts from which they are taken organic materials for the dating may sometimes give misleading results due to stratigraphy reverse in case of burials of sites or new acquaintances of sites abandoned millennia before, this last chance very often. Imagine, then, what can be random timestamps monoliths from whose vicinity was not possible to extrapolate any context, clarifying that the conclusions were based only on established preconceptions. The menhirs in town Serraglia, therefore, may be much older because not only Pantelleria has seen human to frequent cycles spaced centuries that have already been able to find on the spot these monoliths but also because it is precisely the lack of finds to leave ample spaces open to all possibilities. Finds much older in remote sites once littoral, in fact, may have been irretrievably erased by rising sea or underwater landslides while in higher sites, given the intense eruptive activity from 18,000 to 3,000 years ago (which culminated around 7000 BC), from material erupted. Even archaeoastronomical in situ observations made in 2009 have not provided information on their possible dating because, since it was not possible to extrapolate from setting any data for the real time of the commissioning site of the monoliths, you are only limited to solar and lunar positions as it did not want to venture any star alignment to the guidelines no collimating with solar or lunar motions. Speaking of falcons has already mentioned the charm that would exercise the ancient hunters for their prime hunting and testimonials from immedesimazioni with these extraordinary birds come in from wall representations in French caves, such as the Man of Cougnac and to Pech- Merle played with a bird’s head, while at Altamira (Spain) deep cuts immortalize a man with a bird’s face and paws of a bear. The best known example, however, is undoubtedly that of the Lascaux Cave (France) where the Shaft of the Dead were depicted an ancient hunter allegedly died with bird’s head, a wounded bison loses the innards and stick with shamanic end a volatile (amazingly similar to the Egyptian symbol of the West), clear representation of a hunting dramatic outcome. This representation also for Michael Rappengluëck (University researcher Monaco) as well as having an astronomical significance would also have a correspondent in the Egyptian myth of Dewen-ANWI (Egyptian god with the falcon-headed) who fights Meskhetiu cattle. This myth, of which there are references in the ceiling of the second tomb in Deir el-Bahri Senenmut, the tomb of Seti I, the second hypostyle hall of the Ramesseum and other stellar ceilings, in fact, would seem to be linked precisely to the Ancestors of the primitive Egyptians and numerous individuals Saharan immortalized with a bird’s head. Probably, though, many of Cognitio friends will not know that in the context compatible with the localization of the sacred primordial world of the Ancestors is a wonderful engraving, continuation animalistic art during the period of the last hunters of their characters with a bird’s head which could be the connection between the ancient Saharan people portrayed with such features and Sicily through the ancient Sicilian Channel. I’m talking about dell’Addaura caves on Mount Pellegrino (Palermo) whose rock paintings constitute one of the most realistic rock art expressions of Upper Palaeolithic.
You will notice that in these engravings from the secure section of the characters have impressive bodies and majestic highlighting elitist aesthetics that bring to mind the atypical individuals dolichocephalics predynastic Egyptians enigmatic high and mighty but also that one elongated head (dolichocephalic?) Is identified a feature that would characterize precisely since ancient times Libyan tribes and later exponents of pre-dynastic Egyptian culture: the distinctive tail (or braid) of the upper collecting hair on the head. One casualty? These mysterious individuals also may already have had a great familiarity with the sea. At the center of this complex scene, in fact, there is a character in place to dive with the head and upper limbs associated head and flippers of a seal under a man with back arched much because he has tied a rope to his neck ankles so it is really hard not to discern a possible magic-ritual propitiatory sacrifice for hunting this animal that, in addition to the coast, might be enlarged offshore and sometimes with results also very dramatic. Outcomes sometimes dramatic, in fact, they would be confirmed the dead man depicted with the head and seal whiskers and a harpoon in hand in the Cosquer cave, Palaeolithic sanctuary submerged – 37 meters (discovered by divers in 1985 near Marseille) rich reproductions of terrestrial and marine animals come down to us for the rising characteristic of the access tunnel that allowed air trapping in a large room about 120 meters from the entrance. The investigations in this cave have shown, from the carbon residues of hearths used for charcoal black representations, two human presence spaced about 8000 years: the first around 25000 BC and the second from 17200 to 16500 B.C. about. The last clue, but certainly not least, to reconnect the Strait of Sicily to the primordial sacred texts of the world is the pillar Djed, the column associated with Osiris, whose origin is very old, because already in the pre-dynastic necropolis of Helwan (about 20 km south of today’s Cairo) were found amulets and djed tat (node or belt of Isis) demonstrating how the ancient custom of burying the dead with these amulets to ward off the adverse entity.
In the texts it is mentioned that protection of the site was also brought this pillar (which it seems was also restored) and in August 2015 was found a monolith about 12 meters long lying on the bottom at 40 meters depth in their area that before the Holocene rise in the Mediterranean would be a small island (Pantelleria Old) Sicily Channel. The big block of stone is characterized by holes (one passing through it at one end and two sides) and the discoverers would indicate not only that the man had already occupied some islands that until about 9500 years ago dotted the north-western sector Channel of Sicily but also that it was already in possession of advanced technical capabilities because the shape of the monolith and the holes may not be charged to any natural process and why, before being erected, it would have been transported for approximately 300 meters from the extraction zone.
A few days after the publication of the article in the Journal of Archaeological Science, however, came a rebuttal.
In a press release signed by three eminent experts of underwater antiquities in the Sicilian and Mediterranean seas, in fact, it has been countered each point of the theories, to arrive at the following conclusion: the monolith is nothing but a natural formation, ie a beachrock, typical of coastal environments and often, due to coastal erosion, it breaks away from the rocky basin of origin settling in the Mediterranean Sea between +1 and -5 meters compared to the coastline. In Sardinia, Turkey, Sicily, Greece, Croatia and Liguria these natural formations are known and dated to a depth of 60 meters and are often formed on the sandy shores which, yielding, favor its fragmentation, even in the apparent form monoliths. The three Sicilian scholars, moreover, while admitting that the bottom could not be submerged in the period suggested by discoverers, believe that the “monolith” is not attributable to human work for its characteristics (arcuate shape, morphology of the edges and context) and for the hole described in the article as the work of man because similar holes, natural erosion effect, are common in a variety of rock formations. There should be noted, however, that among the reasons given for demonstration of human origin is not the monolith, in the press is also the hackneyed preconception of the great backwardness of the western Mediterranean men in terms of navigation. In support further non-attribution to human work of the monolith, in fact, the three scholars write: “Finally, looking at the geographical location of the” monolith “in the Strait of Sicily, as described by the authors in the work, you notice how the investigated site was a sort of island (in an area that today reaches -130 meters). In the Mesolithic period was then separated from the mainland and, whenever it is man-made, it had to be reached by boats. Remember that the first sailing events in the Mediterranean are made only date back to the Neolithic period next. “ In any case, the fact that the monolith can be a beachrock and not an artifact in no way invalidate one of its possible association with the Djed mentioned in the texts because, given its possible restoration by Shebtiu, nothing excludes that these had been able to take advantage of the presence already on site of this natural lytic formation that, after a manipulative intervention of adaptation, it would then be raised to the islet protection. How many testimonies of natural megaliths then adapted locally by man for several millennia have come down to us? There remains, therefore, to wait for further investigations of the monolith and the context in which it was found, but already at this discovery, natural or handmade from it, could be just the icing on the cake for the possible location of the mysterious primordial sacred world of ancestors of the Egyptian primitive that is part Sicilian, crossroads of peoples and cultures since ancient times.
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