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Anjar Umayyad Ancient city in the Bekaa (valley of Lebanon). Designed in 714-15 under the Caliph al-Walid I as a city-building, it was built near the Giarr source, on the road between Damascus and Beirut; in the 12th century. Crusaders settled there a settlement. Surrounded by walls with semicircular towers, was tetrapartite by two orthogonal axes colonnades, the intersection of which was a tetrastylon; the eastern half was reserved for the buildings of the government, including a large palace and the mosque attached to it. Since 1984 a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The town is now mainly populated by the descendants of about six thousand Armenians who lived in the region of Musa Dagh, in the Sanjak of Alexandretta. When in 1939 the French authorities mandatory ceded the region to the Republic of Turkey, residents Armenians, who survived the genocide of 1915 thanks to a fierce resistance and feared retaliation from the Turkish side, sought refuge in Syria and Lebanon, and many of them they gave birth to the current settlement.
In more recent times, the town was notorious as the site of the headquarters of the armed forces and Syrian intelligence services stationed in Lebanon.
With the end of the Umayyad dynasty and the advent of the Abbasid dynasty in 750, the city was abandoned and fell into disrepair.
It was rediscovered in an almost random around 1950, although for accuracy the excavations have unearthed the remains of the complex was begun in 1949. The walls of Anjar incorporate all the urban features and monuments that characterize the city Umayyad. Some features exist on the periphery of the complex as a caravanserai, and these must be protected by a buffer zone that would also protect the visual integrity of the Bekaa valley and to limit the development of modern buildings.
Anjar Umayyad Ancient city in the Bekaa (valley of Lebanon).
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