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Aksum, the Northern city of Ethiopia, in Tigray. From the 1st century was the capital of a civilization already documented in the 5th century BC commercial crossroads, the kingdom of Aksum dominated until the southern Arabia, and Meroe defeat, came down to the Nile Valley, reaching its apogee in the 4th century with King Zana.
Christianization of the center, from the 7th century, declined to the incursions of the Beja and the Islamic domination of the Red Sea. In the 10th century, the Christian-Ethiopian center of gravity shifted to the south of Aksum, where he remained a religious and symbolic center. It has a rich archaeological heritage. One of its monolithic stele, taken to Rome in 1937 by the Italians, was restored in 2005.
The kingdom of Axum had its own written language called Ge’ez and developed an original architecture, characterized by giant obelisks. The kingdom reached its apogee during the reign of Ezana, who was baptized with the name of Abriha in the fourth century. This event marked the official time for the Christianization of the kingdom. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church claims that the Cathedral Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion in Axum contains the Biblical Ark of the Covenant which was kept the Ten Commandments on which are written the Ten Commandments that Moses brought his people.
This same church was the place where for centuries the Ethiopian emperors were crowned until Fasiladas kingdom and again from Yohannes IV of Ethiopia until the end of empire. Axum is considered the holiest city of Ethiopia and is an important place of pilgrimage. significant holidays are T’imk’et (corresponding to the Epiphany, celebrated Festival January 7, not 6), and the Festival of Maryam Zion, which falls in late November. On 15 October 1935 the city was occupied by Italian troops under General Emilio de Bono, two years later, in 1937, an obelisk of Axum, 23.4 meters high and dates back to 1700 years before, already on the ground and broke into four pieces for several centuries, was sent to Rome by Italian troops to be stationed in Piazza di Porta Capena as war booty of the Ethiopian war.
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