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Abu Simbel, location of Egypt, in the governorate of Aswan, between the first and the second cataract of the Nile.
Famous for two cave temples carved out under the Pharaoh Ramses II: the largest, dedicated to the gods Amun, Ptah, Ra and the Pharaoh himself, keeps four statues of the dynasty sitting, 20 meters high, carved into the rock.
On one of the four giants carved into the facade, are graphite Greek inscriptions, caries, Phoenician.
The smaller temple is dedicated to the goddess Hathor and the wife of Ramses, Nefertiti, whose images are carved on the facade of the rock.
Since the construction of the dam of Sadd el-Ali, 6.5 km upstream of Aswan, the temples would be submerged by the UNESCO in 1968 put in place a rescue plan, which is to reconstruct the temples 65 m higher. The operation provided an opportunity for a thorough survey of inscriptions and depictions engraved on the walls. Above the statues on the pediment of the temple there are 14 statues of baboons, looking east, waiting for the birth of the sun every day to worship, originally there were 22 statues of baboons, as many as the provinces of Upper Egypt, also if according to another hypothesis the statues were 24, one for each hour of day.
Ramsete II, Abu Simbel, one of the statues of Ramses remained headless, in fact, this has collapsed a few years after the construction of the temple because of an earthquake and has remained at the foot of the statue. In the fall it has destroyed some of the smaller statues that were found on the terrace of the temple, representations of the same Pharaoh and the God Horus (hawk). Above the entrance door of the temple in a niche carved into the rock, there is a statue of the god Ra-Harakhti, is the falcon god joined the solar disk, the right hand of God rests on the scepter indicating transformation, said Usir while left rests on the image of the goddess Maat representative justice.
This two symbols joined the solar disk Ra find themselves in the title block of the coronation of Ramses II, the pharaoh then wants to indicate that the temple is dedicated to the god himself. On either side of the niche, there are two high reliefs depicting the pharaoh while ago offering a symbol of justice to God.
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